Basic Pediatrics Lecture Notes

Topics: Infant, Obstetrics, Childbirth Pages: 48 (12881 words) Published: March 27, 2012



Lecture notes transcribed by: charlene may tingzon

Work Street Work City, Work State Work ZIP


June 6, 2011
change in physical features. Change or increase in physical size of the whole person or any of its parts.


increase in function/skills. learning ability to eat, read and manipulate objects. fine motor skills manipulate w/ hands almost always correl with vision gross motor skills child’s ability to move personal &social skills ability to take care of & do things for himsels, & interact with other children and adults cognitive skills children are able to read language skills Expressive - ability to speak Receptive - to understand

Growth and Development
growth periods
Lecturer: Dr. De Guzman Prepared by: cmgt

2 major growth periods: Prenatal & Postnatal I. PRENATAL! A. Ovum! ! B. Embryo C. Fetus Early Fetal life Late Fetal life! ! ! 0-280 days 0-14 days 3-8 weeks 9 weeks to birth 2nd trimester 3rd trimester

• first 14 days • determine whether the pregnancy is viable or not. • Not susceptible to teratogens (agents harmful to pregnancy ex.radiation can not affect the ovum) • organ formation: no significant event B. Embryo • All organs form • Morphogenesis - body formation • First 2 organs to form: Brain & Heart • Babies born with congenital rubella - mothers had german measles during pregnancy it is not unusual that the brain & heart are affected at the same time bec they were dev @ the same period. • For mation of ectoder m (skin & CNS), endoderm (CVS & the rest of the organs), mesoderm (respiratory, urinary, digestive tracts, muscles, CT, bones) and their derivatives.

Birth - ave. 280days (37-42weeks is considered a term pregnancy) Premature infant - Less than 37weeks Ex: If the baby is born even it is less than 25weeks old, it is already an INFANT. PRENATAL PERIOD A. Ovum • from fertilization to implantation of blastocyst in the uterine wall

1 | prepared by cmgt


Growth periods prenatal and postnatal
...cont. embryo


• Dev. of sex organs (Dev is diff from determination.) Sex is developed (whether the child is going to be masculine/feminine) in the embryonic period. • At the end of embryonic period: 3cm, 3grams at 8 weeks • Very vulnerable to teratogens • At 4 weeks the heart starts beating • At 8 1/2 weeks the embryo responds to tactile stimulation. C. Fetus • Time of rapid growth • 13th-15th week: swallowing and suckling movements • 16th-20th week: (quickening) fetal movt sometimes felt by the mother • 20th week: - complete commissures of the brain - myelination of the cord begins - Present sucking reflex - First patterns of respiratory movements • Vulnerable to teratogens but to lesser extent than embryonic stage • 25-28 weeks: - 38cm (15”) in length - 1.2 kg (2 lb & 11 oz) - Rapid dev of nervous system - Development of greater control over movements such as opening & closing of eyelids & other body functions. - Lungs have developed sufficiently that air breathing is possible 28th weeks: • - retinal layers & light perception complete - eyelids are open

II. POST NATAL ! A. Infacy! ! Neonate/newborn Middle/nursing Transition/toddler/ ! runabout B. Childhood Early Late ! ! C. Adolescence

birth to 2 years first 4wks afterbirth 1st year 1 to 2 years

2-6 years 6-10years (girls) 6-12years(boys)

Growth and Development physical development 1st and 2nd year 1st year 0-2 months ✓ 10% decrease below birthweight during the first 10 days, which is physiologic, due to loss of fluid during pregnancy. ✓ Exceed birthweight by 2 weeks of age ✓ 30g/1oz. per day during the first month (fastest postnatal growth) 2-6 months ✓ by 3-4 months, growth of 20g/day th ✓ doubling of birthweight at 4 month ✓ Ex: ave birthweight = 3 kg @ 4 months = birthweight x 2 ! ! = 3kg x 2 = 6 kg 6-12 months st ✓ by...
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