Exercise 1: Cell Transport Mechanisms and Permeability Worksheet

Topics: Woman, Pregnancy, Childbirth Pages: 6 (1930 words) Published: August 18, 2012
Emotional Reactions to Women, Pregnant and Non Pregnant,
In Relation to Customary and Non Customary Roles.
Rebekah N Diaz
American Military University
May 12, 2012
Dr. Ronald Jeziorski

Emotional Reactions to Women, Pregnant and Non Pregnant,
In Relation to Customary and Non Customary Roles.

This field study conducted by Hebl, King, Glick, Singletary, and Kazama in 2006 was done to determine the different types of emotional responses to pregnant versus non-pregnant women in different customary and non-customary roles. The volunteers wore false pregnant stomachs while applying for jobs and shopping in large retail stores in a shopping mall. The study was trying to determine if pregnant women would receive more compassionate treatment if they were setup in a traditional role such as shopping as opposed to a pregnant woman who tried to interview for a welding job. The idea was that the pregnant women would receive a more kind response if they were in need of help with an item as opposed to filling out an application for employment (Hebl, et al., 2006).

Throughout history the word pregnancy has conjured up feelings of fragility and delicateness. These types of views gave birth, no pun intended, to many beautiful paintings such as Picasso’s “Mother and Child” or Modersohn-Becker’s “New Mother”. When someone says the word, “Mother”, one does not immediately think of a sales associate or an advertising executive. However, the study found that ambivalent sexism was the cause of the difference in the ways the pregnant women, who were trying to gain employment, were being viewed and treated. Ambivalent sexism states that a man will feel a greater hostility to women that challenges the traditional by evening the playing field, such as career women or feminists (Glick & Fiske, 1996, 2001). Hypothesis

The hypothesis for this study was that pregnant (versus non pregnant) women would receive a more benevolent attitude and response when they acted out the traditional role and likewise that the pregnant (versus non-pregnant) women would receive a more hostile response if they were to engage in non-traditional roles such as seeking employment. The role manipulation was completed by having visibly pregnant versus non pregnant volunteers apply for jobs that were not traditional versus acting as simple customers. They also expected that the pregnant women applying for jobs would encounter more hostility than both the non-pregnant and the pregnant shoppers.

Study 1
The first study did not test the pregnant women in a variety of both traditional and non-traditional jobs so therefore they conducted a second study in which they did observe the reaction towards the pregnant women in non-traditional job applicant positions. In study 1, they used 93 female and 17 male employees in a large shopping mall. Sixteen women from the University of Texas, between the ages of 20 and 32 years old stood in as the pregnant and non-pregnant volunteers. They used some many women so that there was no discrimination within race or appearance. These sixteen women were coupled with five men and ten additional women to act as observational observers. Each set of woman/observer went into between four and fourteen different stores. The volunteers engaged in one hundred and ten interactions, forty-three times they acted as women seeking employment and sixty-seven times as customer. In addition to all of this there were six coders, who listened to tapes of the interactions, 14 tapes where inaudible. These six coders had no idea what was being studied or to what ends the data would be used for. Procedure

The volunteers and observers where given training and in the case of the females who would act pregnant, made to wear the pregnancy prosthesis until they were comfortable. The females volunteer was told to deliver a script in a certain fashion while the observers were told to keep to themselves to...

References: CDC - About Teen Pregnancy - Teen Pregnancy - Reproductive Health. (n.d.). Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/TeenPregnancy/AboutTeenPreg.htm
Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1996). The ambivalent sexism inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 491-512. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.70.3.491
Hebl, M. R., King, E. B., Glick, P., Singletary, S. L., & Kazama, S. (2007). Hostile and benevolent reactions toward pregnant women: Complementary interpersonal punishments and rewards that maintain traditional roles. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(6), 1499- 1511. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.6.1499
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