Prenatal Development

Topics: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Embryo Pages: 4 (572 words) Published: July 13, 2013
Prenatal Development
References: Santrock (2009). Child Development Berk (2008). Infants, Children, and Adolescents

Pregnancy Signs and Symptoms
• • • • • • • • • Spotting or Implantation bleeding Delay in menstruation Swollen/tender breasts Fatigue/tiredness Nausea/Morning sickness Backaches and headaches Frequent Urination Darkening of Areolas Food craving or food aversion

The Course of Prenatal Development
• Divided into 3 periods:
The Germinal Period The Embryonic Period The Fetal Period

• The Germinal Period
– Takes place 2 weeks after conception – Includes the:
• creation of fertilized egg, called a zygote, • cell division, • and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall.

• The Embryonic Stage
– 2-8 weeks after conception – Cell differentiation, organs begin to appear – Begins when blastocyst attaches to the uterine wall (now called embryo). – Life support systems develop (amniotic sac/amnion, umbilical cord, placenta) – Organogenesis (process of organ formation during the first two months)

• The Fetal Period
– Two months after conception and lasts for seven months – Growth and development continue their dramatic course during this time – 7 months: “age of viability” of the fetus

Trimesters of Prenatal Development
• First Trimester (first three months) • Second Trimester (middle three months) • Third Trimester (last three months)

Hazards to Prenatal Development
• TERATOGENS: any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period. Depends on the: – Dose – Genetic Susceptibility – Time of Exposure to Teratogens

• Key Teratogens
– Prescription and NonPrescription Drugs
• Thalidomide (sedative) • Accutane

– Psychoactive Drugs (Caffeine, Alcohol, Nicotine, Cocaine, Marijuana, Heroin) • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

– Rh Incompatibility – Mental retardation, miscarriages, infant death

– Radiation and Pollution – Underdeveloped...

References: Santrock (2009). Child Development Berk (2008). Infants, Children, and Adolescents
Pregnancy Signs and Symptoms
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