Articles

Topics: Factor analysis, Motorcycle, Motorcycle safety Pages: 22 (8600 words) Published: July 6, 2013
Accident Analysis and Prevention 39 (2007) 491–499

Errors and violations in relation to motorcyclists’ crash risk Mark A. Elliott a,∗ , Christopher J. Baughan b , Barry F. Sexton b a

Department of Psychology, University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom b Transport Research Laboratory (TRL), United Kingdom

Received 28 July 2006; received in revised form 25 August 2006; accepted 30 August 2006

Abstract This study was conducted to: (a) develop a questionnaire that reliably measures the behaviour of motorcyclists and (b) test which types of behaviour predict motorcyclists’ crash risk. A Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire (MRBQ), consisting of 43 items to measure the self-reported frequency of specific riding behaviours, was developed and administered to a sample of motorcyclists (N = 8666). Principal components analysis revealed a 5-factor solution (traffic errors, control errors, speed violations, performance of stunts and use of safety equipment). Generalised linear modelling showed that, while controlling for the effects of age, experience and annual mileage, traffic errors were the main predictors of crash risk. For crashes in which respondents accepted some degree of blame, control errors and speed violations were also significant predictors of crash risk. Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to deciding which countermeasures may be most effective at reducing motorcycle casualty rates. © 2006 Mark A. Elliott. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire (MRBQ); Errors; Violations; Motorcycle; Crash risk

1. Introduction Statistics for Great Britain show that motorcyclists are more at risk of being killed or injured in road traffic crash than any other type of vehicle users. In 2004, there were over 550 motorcycle riders (including moped riders) killed in road crashes, 6281 killed or seriously injured (KSI) and over 24,300 involved in recorded injury (all severities) crashes (Department for Transport, 2005). In order to reduce these casualty rates, it is important to gain an understanding of the ways in which motorcycle crashes happen. In thinking about the different factors involved in motorcycle crashes, it is useful to consider motorcycling as a system involving three elements: (a) a machine element (i.e., the motorcycle), (b) an environmental element (e.g., traffic conditions, road type and conditions, weather conditions) and (c) a human element (i.e., the rider1 ). Extensive research in road safety has provided a great deal of knowledge about risk factors associated with the first two of these elements (for reviews see

Corresponding author at: Department of Psychology, University of Strathclyde, 40 George Street, Glasgow, G1 1QE, United Kingdom. Tel.: +44 141 548 2700; fax: +44 141 548 4001. E-mail address: melliott@TRL.co.uk (M.A. Elliott). 1 We acknowledge that car drivers have a role to play in road traffic crashes involving motorcyclists. However, this study focuses solely on the motorcycle rider since a great deal is already known about car driver behaviour.



Refs. Elliott et al., 2003; Huang and Preston, 2004). However, relatively little is known about how the human element can be tackled to reduce motorcyclists’ crash risk. A number of studies have demonstrated that the risk of a motorcyclist having a crash increases with exposure and falls with age and riding experience (e.g., Chesham et al., 1993; Lin et al., 2003; Sexton et al., 2004; Taylor and Lockwood, 1990). However, variables such as age, experience and exposure provide limited information about how to improve rider safety. Understanding how rider behaviour is related to crash risk is potentially more useful because behaviour is potentially amenable to change via road safety interventions. Several studies have investigated the relation between motorcycle riding behaviours and crash risk. Riding behaviours that have been found to increase crash risk include riding...

References: Aberg, L., Rimmo, P.A., 1998. Dimensions of aberrant driving behaviour. Ergonomics 41, 39–56. Bartl, G., Baughan, C., Foug` re, J.P., Gregersen, N.P., Nyberg, A., Groot, H., e Sanders, N., Keskinen, E., Hatakka, M., Pannacci, M., Willmes-Lenz, G., Bahr, M., Stummvoll, G., 2002. The EU Advanced Project: Description and Analysis of Post-Licence Driver And Rider Training—Final Report. The Hague, The Netherlands: CIECA. Chesham, D.J., Rutter, D.R., Quine, L., 1993. Motorcycling safety research: a review of the social and behavioral literature. Soc. Sci. Med. 37, 419–429. Department for Transport, 2005. Road Casualties Great Britain: 2004—Annual Report, The Stationery Office, London, England. Dimmer, A.R., Parker, D., 1999. The accidents, attitudes and behaviour of company car drivers. In: Grayson, G.B. (Ed.), Behavioural Research in Road Safety IX. Transport Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, England. Donne, G.L., Fulton, E.J., 1985. The Evaluation of Aids to the Daytime Conspicuity of Motorcycles (Laboratory Report LR1137), Transport Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, England. Elliott, M.A., Baughan, C.J., 2004. Developing a self-report method for investigating adolescent road user behaviour. Transport. Res. Part F: Psychol. Behav. 7, 373–393. Elliott, M., Baughan, C., Broughton, J., Chinn, B., Grayson, G., Knowles, J., Smith, L., Simpson, H., 2003. Motorcycle Safety—A Scoping Study (TRL Report 581), Transport Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, England. Fell, J.C., Nash, C.E., 1989. The nature of the alcohol problem in U.S. fatal crashes. Health Educ. Quart. 16, 335–343. Hole, G.J., Tyrrell, L., 1995. The influence of perceptual set on the detection of motorcyclists using daytime headlights. Ergonomics 38, 1326–1341. Huang, B., Preston, J., 2004. A Literature Review on Motorcycle Collisions: Final report. Retrieved August 17, 2006. From the Oxford University Centre for the Environment, Transport Studies web site: http://www.tsu.ox.ac.uk/. Lajunen, T., Parker, D., Summala, H., 2000. The Manchester driver behaviour questionnaire: a cross-cultural study. Accid. Anal. Prev. 36, 231– 238. Lawton, R., Parker, D., Manstead, A.S.R., Stradling, S., 1997. The role of affect in predicting social behaviors: the case of road traffic violations. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 27, 1258–1276. Lin, M.R., Chang, S.H., Pai, L., Keyl, P.M., 2003. A longitudinal study of risk factors for motorcycle crashes among junior college students in Taiwan. Accid. Anal. Prev. 35, 243–252. Maycock, G., Forsyth, E., 1997. Cohort Study of Learner and Novice Drivers. Part 4: Novice Driver Accidents In Relation To Methods Of Learning To Drive, Performance in the Driving Test and Self-Assessed Driving Ability and Behaviour (TRL Report 275), Transport Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, England. Maycock, G., Lockwood, C.R., Lester, J.F., 1996. The Accident Liability of Car Drivers: The Reliability of Self-Report Data (TRL Report 219), Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, England. McKenna, F.P., Horswill, M.S., 1999. Hazard perception and its relevance for driver licensing. IATSS Res. 23, 36–41. Millar, M.G., Tesser, A., 1986. Effects of affective and cognitive focus on the attitude-behavior relation. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 51, 270–276. ¨ Ozkan, T., Lajunen, T., Chliaoutakis, J.E., Parker, D., Summala, H., 2006. Crosscultural differences in driving behaviours: a comparison of six countries. Transport. Res. Part F 9, 227–242. Parker, D., McDonald, L., Rabbitt, P., Sutcliffe, P., 2000. Elderly drivers and their accidents: the aging driver questionnaire. Accid. Anal. Prev. 32, 751–759.
M.A. Elliott et al. / Accident Analysis and Prevention 39 (2007) 491–499 Parker, D., Reason, J.T., Manstead, A.S.R., Stradling, S., 1995a. Driving errors, driving violations and accident involvement. Ergonomics 39, 1036–1048. Parker, D., West, R., Stradling, S.G., Manstead, A.S.R., 1995b. Behavioural traits and road traffic accident involvement. Accid. Anal. Prev. 27, 571–581. Quimby, A., Maycock, G., Palmer, C., Buttress, S., 1999. The Factors that Influence a Driver’s Choice of Speed—A Questionnaire Study (TRL Report 326), Transport Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, England. Reason, J., Manstead, A., Stradling, S., Baxter, J., Campbell, K., 1990. Errors and violations on the roads: a real distinction? Ergonomics 33, 1315–1332. Rimmo, P.A., 2002. Aberrant driving behaviour: Homogeneity of a four-factor structure in samples differing in age and gender. Ergonomics 45, 569–582. Rimmo, P.A., Hakamies-Blomqvist, L., 2002. Older drivers’ aberrant driving behaviour, impaired activity, and health as reasons for self-imposed driving limitations. Transport. Res. Part F: Traffic Psychol. Behav. 5, 47–62. Sexton B., Baughan, C., Elliott, M., Maycock, G., 2004. The Accident Risk of Motorcyclists (TRL Report 607), Transport Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, England.
499
Siegrist, S., 1999. Driver Training, Testing and Licensing—Towards theoryBased Management Of Young Drivers’ Injury Risk In Road Traffic: Results of EU-Project GADGET, Work Pachage 3. Berne, Austria: bfu. Sullman, M.J.M., Meadows, M.L., Pajo, K.B., 2002. Aberrant driving behaviours amongst New Zealand truck drivers. Transport. Res. Part F: Traffic Psychol. Behav. 5, 217–232. Taylor, M. C., Lockwood, C.R., 1990. Factors Affecting The Accident Liability of Motorcyclists—A Multivariate Analysis of Survey Data (TRRL Report RR270), Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, England. Thomson, G.A., 1980. The role frontal motorcycle conspicuity has in road accidents. Accid. Anal. Prev. 12, 165–178. Waller, P.F., Carroll, C.L., 1980. Analysis of Fatal and Non-Fatal Motorcycle Crashes and Comparison with Passenger Cars. UNC Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, NC. Wells, P., 1986. Observations of Motorcycle Riders at Junctions (TRRL Research Report RR39), Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, England.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Journal Article Review Essay
  • Journal Article Critique Rubric Essay
  • Tips on how to write an article Essay
  • Article Review Guideline Essay
  • Essay about Exploration of a Journal Article in Sociology
  • Essay about Article Review Assignment
  • English Teaching Material for "Articles" Essay
  • The Deffine Article Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free