Computer Number System

Topics: Binary numeral system, Hexadecimal, Decimal Pages: 44 (8518 words) Published: September 14, 2013

Chapter One
1.0 Introduction
When humans are speaking to one another, they speak in a particular language they understand. This language is made of numbers, words and letters. While it is

fine for us to use ten digits for our computations, computers do not have this luxury. Every computer processor is made of millions of tiny switches that can be turned off or on. Since these switches only have two states, it makes sense for a computer to perform its computations with a number system that only has two digits: the binary number system. These digits (0 and 1) are called bits and correspond to the off/on positions of the switches in the computer processor. With only these two digits, a computer can perform all the arithmetic that we can with ten digits. A number system defines how a number can be represented using distinct symbol. A number can be represented differently in different systems. For example, the two numbers (2A)16 and (52)8 both refer to the same quantity, (42)10, but their representation are different. As human being, we use the decimal number system (base-10 number system) for counting; while the computer uses binary number


system (base-2 number system) thus there are two numbers: 0 and 1. A single computer switch can represent both computer numbers; 1 = ON and 0 = OFF. A single binary is called binary digit or bit. Computers perform operations on binary number groups called words. Today most computer uses 32-, 64-, or 128- bit words. Words are subdivided into 8bits groups called bytes. There are four most common number systems that are frequently used in computers. These number systems are: • Binary number system • Decimal number system • Hexadecimal number system • Octal number system Computer number system is important as it helps the computer function. Without number system we can't even think of computer because it stores all the data in form of binary number system (0 and 1). So without binary number system computer couldn't have originated. Decimal Number system is also very important as internet protocol (IPv4) which is responsible for network communication between two or more computer systems needs it to work. The new Internet protocol (IPv6) uses Hexadecimal number system to work. We use number systems when working with arrays, without a number system you would not be able to keep track of what is going on in a computer system. Number systems are highly vital to security codes. Number theory is tightly linked to cryptography, which uses (in internet security


mainly) modulus arithmetic and prime number factorization, important parts of number theory.

1.1 Statement of problem
This project work addresses the issues related to computer number system, seeking answers to the following  How a number of digits can be converted from one number system to another.  To study how to use complement system to represent negative numbers

1.2 Objective of Study
The objective of this study is to demonstrate how numbers can be converted from one number system to another

1.3 Signification of the Study
This research work is aimed at instructing students, computer analyst and computer programmers towards a better and easy way of understanding the computer language (number system). This study should among other things;  Help students gain a better understanding of number system and its application to real life problems.


  

Increase our ability to add and subtract two numbers having as many as three digits and involving renaming in the ones place. Increase our ability to convert from one number system to another. Improve our knowledge on how to use complement system to represent negative numbers

1.4 Literature review
A lot of research in recent years has been directed at solving the computer language (number system), this is because of its importance in the computer filed. A number system (or numeral system) has been defined by (Behrouz Forouzan and...
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