• Present trend of practice of pharmacy has liberated the pharmacist from the traditional “count, lick and pour” tasks
• Current dispensing is not merely an “act of giving” but a systematic process whereby a pharmacist renders professional service to ensure rational drug therapy
• Dispensing refers to the pharmacist’s function of taking an order or prescription, preparing the drug/s according to the instructions of a physician or dentist and delivering it to the patient or client with proper instructions.
• A prescription is a written order and instruction from a licensed prescriber to the pharmacist for the use of drug product/s for a specific patient.
• It identifies the medication/s to be dispensed and should be accompanied by directions on its proper use.
• Medication orders are requests for medications by a licensed prescriber and are intended for use in the institutional setting.
Parts of a Prescription
1. Date (Change Rx to current)
2. Patient’s Information
• Address & Telephone No.
6. Signa/Direction for use
7. Signature of Doctors
8. Licenses- PRC , PTR, S2
9. Address & Tel. no of doctor
This is the Rx symbol which means ‘take or give.’ It is the beginning of the direct order of the prescriber to the pharmacist to fill the order and dispense the prescription.
The principal, and the most important part of the prescription; it gives the names of the medicine/s or drugs required, the dose per unit, the quantity of each and dosage forms.
The instructions given to the pharmacist, especially the preparation of drugs which requires compounding.
The direction to the patient on how to use the medicine.
• This is what the pharmacist and drugstore sales clerk repeat verbally and clearly to the patient
• These include instructions on when to take the medicine (before or after meals), precautions, and simple instructions on how to take the medicine, e.g. not taking medicine from the bottle on calculated amounts.
Parts of a Medication Order
• Name/s of drugs
• Generic name
• Brand name
• Dosage form/Strength
• Route of Administration
• Frequency and duration of use
• Signature of doctor
The Dispensing Process
• Receive the prescription
• Read and analyze the prescription
• Number and date the prescription
• Prepare the label
• Compound and package the drug product
• Recheck the label of the product vs. the Rx
• Record and file the prescription
• PROVIDE PATIENT COUNSELING
• Deliver the product
Pharmacy assistant should:
• Give the price of the product
• Get the payment for the product
• Deliver the drug product
The Medication Pathway
Prescribing – Doctors
Prescribing is associated with around half of all avoidable medication errors.
Dispensing – Pharmacist
Dispensing errors account for over 10% of all avoidable medication errors.
Administering – Nurse
Administration of medicine is associated with about 1/3 of all avoidable medication errors.
DOCTOR - PRESCRIBING
Make an accurate diagnosis
Decide on medication versus other treatment
Choose drug based on efficacy, safety, convenience, cost
Consider suitability of choice and dose of individual patient
Prepare and dispense
Prepare to administer medication to patient
Administered to patient
Recorded to patient chart
Monitor patient response
What Can Go Wrong?
• Lack of awareness of best practice recommendations
• Failure to alter...
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