The process of drugs in pharmaceuticals is actually a very long one. There are several different stages that a company undertakes in order to get their drug to the doctors, pharmacists and patients. We will look at this process over the next few minutes. Introduction:
As a Chemistry major I’m passionate to study on drugs and would like to involve in pharmaceuticals. I’m also inspired from my family where my brothers-in-law are pharmacist and besides I love chemistry since my high school. People all over the world are taking drugs for certain to millions of reasons which lead number of drugs to billions. Drugs are served as pills or syrup as well as injectors. Most of the people in the world are taking drugs as a pill but they never feel it takes 15 to 20 years to reach their hands. In other words, it takes twenty years a drug from discoveries to come into the market. The answer for this many years to be safety for the people and during drugs are tested and designed and also modified for less harmful and more effective.
1. Main Point:
Drug Discovery is a very few first steps in its journey to the market. A. Drug discovery is a process in medicine and pharmacology where a drug is discovered and designed. In the past drug discovery was very different to the current form, previously active ingredients were used to tackle illnesses. Nowadays more detailed research on diseases has been pursued, details such as what the genes are coding or what protein is involved, therefore are allowing the designing of drugs to target specific sites to act on the disease. Most of the drugs came from nature even now a day, lead compounds are found in nature, which later are sent for development. Professor Silverman mentions in his book, ‘The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action’ that, ‘Greater than 60% of the anticancer and anti-effective agents that are on the market or in clinical trials are of natural product origin or derived from natural products.’ I. As most of the compounds are found in nature, scientists believe that most of the early drugs were discovered accidentally, which means the initial compound was prescribed for one purpose but in clinical test the drug were sometimes found for another treatment. As Professor Subash Jonnalagadda from Rowan University said in his interview, ‘ Lots of drugs are accidental such as Viagra, which was discovered in early 90’s to help man suffering chest pains from heart diseases but came up with an odd side effect-erections.’ His examples included the drug minoxidil, which was approved for high blood pressure but later it was also prescribed for hair restorer.
B. Now a day scientists know the specific target of the disease therefore they mark possible compounds including the natural one to get the correct one, and thus drug discovery is a very time consuming and expensive process. Estimate of the average time required to bring a drug to the market range from 12-15 years at an average. Professor Richard B. Silverman reports in his book that, ‘the industry estimates that the average cost of developing a successful drug is about $ 800 million.’ Therefore it makes to the fact that, pharmaceuticals spend more money on lost opportunity and uncovered financial losses of the company rather they do on research and development. The New York Times reported in 2000, ‘Pharmaceutical companies spend more than $20 billion annually on research and development.’ Besides the companies spend more on drug development than on research. In total, the cost gives the idea that, new drugs in the market are too costly because not of its manufacture but the profit are needed to pay for all the drugs that fail to make it to market after large sum of research funds have already been expanded.
2. Main Point:
Drug design is the pre-stage of clinical trials whereas trial includes the verification...
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