Syllabus for GPAT - 2013
Introduction to Physical pharmacy Matter, Properties of Matter: State of matter, change in the state of matter, latent heats and vapor pressure, sublimationcritical point, Eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols-inhalers, relative humidity, liquid. Complexes, liquid crystals, glassy state, solids- crystalline, amorphous and polymorphism. Micromeretics and Powder Rheology: Particle size and distribution, average particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle volume, methods of determining particle size- optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation; measurements of particle shape, specific surface area; methods for determining surface area; permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties. Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon: Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization, detergency, adsorption at solid interfaces, solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of interface. Viscosity and Rheology: Newtonian systems, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature; non-Newtonian systems: pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic; thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, negative thixotropy, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling ball, rotational viscometers.
Dispersion Systems: Colloidal dispersions: Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, applications of colloids in pharmacy; Suspensions and Emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, theory of sedimentation, effect of Brownian motion, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation
parameters, wetting of particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations; Emulsions-types, theories, physical stability. Complexation: Classification of complexes, methods of preparation, analysis, & applications. Kinetics and Drug Stability: General considerations & concepts, half-life determination, Influence of temperature, light, solvent, catalytic species and other factors, Accelerated stability study, expiration dating. Importance of microbiology in pharmacy Structure of bacterial cell; Classification of microbes and their taxonomy: Actinomycetes, bacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses. Identification of Microbes: Stains and types of staining techniques, electron microscopy; Nutrition, cultivation, isolation of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, viruses, etc; microbial genetics and variation. Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods: Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection, disinfectants and antiseptics and their evaluation;. Sterilization: Different methods, validation of sterilization methods &equipments; Sterility testing of all pharmaceutical products. Microbial assays of antibiotics, vitamins & amino acids. Immunology and Immunological Preparations: Principles, antigens and heptans, immune system, cellular/humoral immunity, immunological tolerance, antigen-antibody reactions and their applications. Hypersensitivity, active and passive immunization. Vaccines and sera: their preparation, standardization and storage. Genetic Recombination: Transformation, conjugation, transduction, protoplast fusion and gene cloning and their applications.Development of hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies. Study of drugs produced by biotechnology such as Activase, Humulin, Humatrope, HB etc. Antibiotics: Historical development of antibiotics. Antimicrobial spectrum and methods used for their standardization. Screening of soil for organisms producing antibiotics, fermenter, its design, control of different parameters. Isolation of mutants, factors...
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