Introduction to Dosage Form

Topics: Route of administration, Dosage form, Transdermal patch Pages: 12 (3586 words) Published: June 26, 2013
Introduction to Different Dosage Form

Dosage form is a mixture of active drug component and nondrug component, depending on the type of administration it is of several types. Besides that, it is also a completed forms of pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medications are included. They are solid, liquid and semisolid dosage forms. Common dosage forms include pill, tablet or capsule, drink or syrup, (e.g., via oral ingestion or freebase smoking), and natural or herbal form such as plant or food of sorts, among many others. Notably, the route of administration (ROA) for drug delivery is dependent on the dosage form of the substance in question.

Various dosage forms may exist for a single particular drug, since different medical conditions can warrant different routes of administration. For example, persistent nausea and emesis or vomiting may make it difficult to use an oral dosage form, and in such a case, it may be necessary to utilize an alternate route such as inhalational, buccal, sublingual, nasal, suppository or parenteral instead.

Additionally, a specific dosage form may be a requirement for certain kinds of drugs, as there may be issues with various factors like chemical stability or pharmacokinetics. As an example, insulin cannot be given orally because upon being administered in this manner, it is extensively metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) before reaching the blood stream and is thereby incapable of sufficiently reaching its therapeutic target destinations. The oral and intravenous doses of a drug such as paracetamol will differ for the same reason.

The Importance of Dosage Forms
1. To provide safe and convenient administration of drug substance in accurate dosage (quantity) 2. For protection of drug substances from destructive influence of atmospheric oxygen and moisture (e.g. coated tablets, sealed ampoules etc.) 3. For protection of drugs substances from destructive influence of gastric acid after oral administration (e.g. entering coated tablets) 4. To conceal (hide or mask) the bitter, salty or obnoxious (hateful) taste or (smell) of a drug substance (e.g. capsules, coated tablets, flavored syrup etc.) 5. To provide liquid preparations of substances that are insoluble or unstable in the desired vehicle (medium) (e.g. suspensions) 6. To provide liquid dosage forms of substances that are soluble in the desired vehicle (medium) (e.g. solution) 7. To provide extended drug action through controlled release mechanism (e.g. various controlled release tablets, capsules or suspensions) 8. To provide optimal drug action from topical administration sites (e.g. ointments, creams, ophthalmic (related to eye), ear and nasal preparations) 9. To provide for the insertion of a drug substance into one of the body’s orifices (opening/outlet) (e.g. rectal or vaginal suppositories) 10. To provide for the replacement of drugs within body tissues (e.g. injections) 11. To provide optimal drug action through inhalation therapy [e.g. inhalants (vicks) and inhalation aerosols (used by asthmatic patients)

Types of Dosage Forms
Oral
* Pill, tablet, or capsule
* Specialty tablet like buccal, sub-lingual, or orally-disintegrating * Thin film (e.g., Listerine Pocketpaks)
* Liquid solution or suspension (e.g., drink or syrup) * Powder or liquid or solid crystals
* Natural or herbal plant, seed, or food of sorts (e.g., marijuana such as that found in "special brownies") * Pastes(Colgate)

Inhalational
* Aerosol
* Inhaler
* Nebulizer
* Smoking (often in natural herb (e.g., tobacco, marijuana) or freebase powder form (e.g., cocaine, methamphetamine)) * Vaporizer (usually to vaporize natural herbs like marijuana)

Parenteral Injection
* Intradermal (ID)
* Intramuscular (IM)
* Intraosseous (IR)
* Intraperitoneal (IP)
* Intravenous (IV)
* Subcutaneous (SC
* Intrathecal (IT)...
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