medication and prescription 1

Topics: Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Medical prescription Pages: 10 (3479 words) Published: January 9, 2015
1. Medication groups and their use
1. Antibiotics
They are used to treat bacterial infections, some can be used to treat a wide range of infections (broad spectrum antibiotics) and some only in specific infections (narrow spectrum antibiotics).

2. Analgesics
They are used to relieve pain, to control pain and/or might help to reduce temperature 3. Antihistamines
They are used to treat allergic reactions caused by other medicines, insects, stings, toiletries etc. 4.Antacids
They are used to treat symptoms of indigestion and discomfort associated with it i.e. heartburn, bloating etc.

5.Anticoagulatns
They are sued to prevent forming blood clots which can lead to heart attack, stroke, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism etc.

6. Psychotropic medicines
They are used to treat, mental illness i.e. schizophrenia, depression, anxiety etc. by controlling symptoms of the disease. Psychotropic medicines do not cure mental illnesses but work by alleviating symptoms of mental illness.

7. Diuretics
They are used to maintain optimum fluids retention in the body by, for example, removing excess water (fluids). 8. Laxatives
They help with constipation by stimulating bowel muscles or/and softening the content of the bowel. Therefore they are used to relieve constipation and clear the bowel. 9. Hormones
They are used to regulate natural bodily functions which were disrupted by factors such as illness , ageing, certain health conditions , stress etc. 10. Cytotoxic medicines
They are used in treating some types of cancer. Very aggressive drugs which along with killing cancer cells , will also damage healthy cells. 2. Routes of administration
Oral
Oral route of administration means , that medicines are given by mouth and absorbed whilst in the stomach or bowel. Oral types of medicines have often form of tablets, capsules, liquids, dispersible tablets and powders, sometimes gels. Some of the medication might be taken with meals, before or after, and some on empty stomach using large amount of water. MAR sheet or leaflet/doctors instruction will provide information how and when to take particular medication. Oral medication should be always taken whilst standing or sitting upright, in order to avoid choking.

Buccal
Administered by mouth as a tablets and have to placed between top gum and the cheek until dissolved. The tablet should not be chewed, sucked or swallowed but dissolved but dissolved itself whilst still in the mouth. Sublingual

Administered by mouth ,by placing tablet or spray under tongue. Nitrates which are used to treat angina are often administered in that way. Inhaled
Administered via airways ,directly to the lungs. It allows to administer smaller doses and avoid major side effects. Inhaled medicines are usually used to treat respiratory conditions and administered using inhalers or nebulisers.

Intra-nasal
Administered through nose. They have often form of drops, creams, sprays or vapours and administered by placing medication into the nostril and breathing in. Head should be tipped forward during this procedure. Creams should be applied onto the inner wall of nostrils. Intra –ocural

These medicines come in the form of drops or ointment and are administered into the eyes. It is very important to store the medications in the right temperature, check the date on the bottles and use separate bottles for left and right eye. When administering this type of medicines, it is advised to pull gently lower eyelid, administer medication and wink afterwards. Intra-aural

Administered through ears, by placing medication into ears. Head should be tilted when administering medication, which usually comes in a form of drops. Excess amount should be wiped by using a swab. Similar precautions as with inter-ocular medications, have to be applied, such as using separate bottles to each ear, checking dates and date when bottles were open, hand wash before and after administration.

Topical
This route...
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