Mid Semester

Topics: Obstetrics, Pregnancy, Parity Pages: 4 (1185 words) Published: March 17, 2014
A woman's obstetrical history is recorded as: number of pregnancies, known as gravida and number of pregnancies carried to viable gestational age , known as parity. Viable gestational age varies from region to region, for example in the UK it is considered to be 24 weeks whilst in the USA 23 weeks is considered viable. A woman who has never given birth is a nullipara, a nullip, or para 0. A woman who has never completed a pregnancy beyond 20 weeks is also referred to as being nulliparous, a nullipara or para 0.[8] A woman who has given birth one or more times is referred to as para 1, para 2, para 3 and so on. A woman in her first pregnancy and who has therefore not yet given birth is a nullipara or nullip, if her pregnancy is less than 20 weeks. After she gives birth she becomes a primip. A woman who has given birth once before is primiparous, and is referred to as a primipara or primip. A woman who has given birth two or more times is multiparous and is called a multip. Grand multipara refers to a (grand multiparous) woman who has given birth five or more times. Gravida/para/abortus[edit]

Gravida/para/abortus (GPA), or sometimes just gravida/para (GP), is a shorthand notation for a woman's obstetric history. Gravida indicates the number of times the mother has been pregnant, regardless of whether these pregnancies were carried to term. A current pregnancy, if any, is included in this count. Para indicates the number of >20 wks births (including viable and non-viable i.e. stillbirths). Pregnancies consisting of multiples, such as twins or triplets, count as ONE birth for the purpose of this notation. Abortus is the number of pregnancies that were lost for any reason, including induced abortions or miscarriages. The abortus term is sometimes dropped when no pregnancies have been lost. Stillbirths are not included. Therefore, the history of a woman who has had two pregnancies (both of which resulted in live births) would be noted as G2P2. The obstetrical...

References: edit]
^ Jump up to: a b Borton, Chloe (November 12, 2009)
^ Jump up to: a b Creinin MD, Simhan HN (March 2009). "Can we communicate gravidity and parity better?". Obstet Gynecol 113 (3): 709–11. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181988f8f (inactive June 26, 2013). PMID 19300338.
Jump up ^ Opara EI, Zaidi J (October 2007). "The interpretation and clinical application of the word 'parity ': a survey". BJOG 114 (10): 1295–7. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2007.01435.x. PMID 17877683.
Jump up ^ D. Vecchio, G. Neglia, M. Rendina, M. Marchiello, A. Balestrieri, R. Di Palo (2007). Dietary influence on primiparous and pluriparous buffalo fertility. Italian Journal of Animal Science 6 (Suppl. 1): 512–514.
^ Jump up to: a b F. Gary Cunningham, 2005. Williams Obstetrics, 22nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies.
Jump up ^ Hatfield, Nancy; N. Jayne Klossner (2006). Introductory maternity & pediatric nursing. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 142. ISBN 0-7817-3690-0.
Jump up ^ Bardsley CR (2011). "Normal Pregnancy". In Tintinalli JE, Kelen GD, Stapczynski JS. Tintinalli 's Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
Jump up ^ Ewertz M, Duffy SW, Adami HO, et al (1990). "Age at first birth, parity and risk of breast cancer: A meta-analysis of 8 studies from the Nordic countries". International Journal of Cancer 46 (4): 597–603. PMID 2145231.
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