Pharmacology Final Review

Topics: Pharmacology, Drug addiction, Benzodiazepine Pages: 6 (1968 words) Published: March 18, 2015
Pharmacology Final Review
She was all over the place but I got all the notes…they are just not in chronological order…ain’t got time for that. =) Also, she did not give pg numbers for everything…so the ones w/o a pg I will preface by using a *…also, some of the drugs I CANNOT spell…so sorry. =)

*1 L = 2.2 lbs; so if the question asks “if the pt gained weight, how much fluid are they retaining?” – you would use this formula to calculate it Pg 15 potential select all that apply – The FDA is responsible for: ensure that all drugs are tested for harmful effects

all drugs have labels with accurate information
enclose detailed literature in the packaging that explains harmful effects pg 16 potential select all that apply – table 2-1 Schedule Categories of Controlled Substances: I – high potential for drug abuse, no accepted medical use – Heroin, hallucinogens, marijuana(except when rx’d for cancer tx) II – high potential for drug abuse, accepted medical use – Demerol, morphine, hydrocodone, methadone, oxycodone, codeine, amphetamines, pentobarbital III – medically accepted drugs, may cause dependence – Codeine preparations, paregoric, nonnarcotic drugs IV – medically accepted drugs, may cause dependence – Phenobarbitol, benzo’s, valium, Ativan, Librium V – medically accepted drugs, limited potential for dependence – opioid controlled substances for diarrhea and cough Pg 17 Nurse Practice Act – Generally, nurses cannot RX or administer drugs w/o a Dr order – if they do they are at risk of losing their license; practicing nurses should be knowledgeable about the NPA in their state; nurses are responsible for knowing their state’s law and administrative code Chapter 1:

Bioavailability – subcategory of absorption, % of the drug dose that reaches systemic circulation Distribution – the process by which the drug becomes available to body fluids and body tissues First pass – drug passes to the liver first

Free drug – only free drugs (drugs not bound to protein)are active and can produce a pharmacological response Protein Bound Drugs – when two highly protein bound drugs are given concurrently, they compete for protein sites, thus causing more free drug to be released-this is when toxicity can occur *tY2 = half life(this is what she wrote on the board, but the book says it is t1/2) – half life is the time it takes for one half of the drug concentration to be eliminated pg 7

Onset of action – time it takes to reach the minimum effective concentration after the drug is administered Peak action – occurs when the drug reaches its highest blood or plasma concentration Duration of action – length of time the drug has a pharmacological effect Time response curve – evaluates the above three(onset, peak and duration) Pg 9 Therapuetic Index(TI) – estimates the margin of safety of the drug Drugs with a low TI have a narrow margin of safety – monitor serum levels Drugs with a high TI have a wide margin of safety – serum levels do not need to be monitored Pg 10

Peak levels – highest plasma concentration of a drug at a specific time; blood should be drawn according to the route of administration(IV is faster than oral) Trough levels – lowest plasma concentration of a drug, measures rate of elimination; should be drawn immediately before next dose regardless of administration *Mycin drugs are rough on kidneys, will want to know peak and trough levels – watch for decreasing urine output(means decreased kidney function) Pg 403 potential select all that apply – What causes resistance with antibiotics? Overuse, skipping doses, and misuse Pg 635 pt teaching for use of antihypertensive drugs – tell them they may need to also take a diuretic, may need to switch to a sodium restricted diet, watch for orthostatic hypertension *Narcotics decrease gastric motility – can cause toxicity, constipation and can increase drug absorption Pg 915 Sodium Bicarb is a base used to tx metabolic acidosis (a low pH means acidotic) Pg 917 Naloxone – opiate...
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