POL 355 International Relations
Instructor: Clifford Keenan
July 29, 2013
Afghanistan is an Islamic republic that is located near Pakistan. Kabul is the capital city and the country’s Chief of State is President Hamid Karzai. The country bears a population of 33.609 million people. It has been in war for three decades making it one of the most dangerous countries in the world. The insecurity in the country has resulted in a large number of refugees. The current war that is going on began in 2001 by several terrorist groups such as Hezbi Islami. In 2001, President George W Bush gives the Taliban an ultimatum which they fail to comply with making the U.S to lead a campaign that drives out the Taliban off major cities in Afghan. Eight years later, U.S President Obama sends 17,000 additional troops to Afghan in February and later that year he adds another troop of 30,000 totaling the number of American Soldiers to 100,000.
Just War Theory evolves from three ideas; jus ad bellum, jus in bello and jus post bellum. Jus ad bellum means justice for war, that is what the motive behind going into war is? This first part concentrates on the reasons why states use war as a means in which to achieve a justifiable end. Jus in bello means justice in war, deals with the means used in the actual war which is normally the soldiers’ responsibility. The last idea used in just war theory is Jus post bellum which means justice after war; this involves the consequences of war. The just War theory mainly talks about the first perspective, jus ad bellum. In case a country or nation has been invaded without provoking the other nation then it is acceptable to exercise force in order to defend itself. From such a situation three just causes can be deduced; self-defense from aggression, the defense from others from aggression and armed involvement in a non -aggressive country where there is serious human rights violations. (Zupan, 2004) One such case where the U.S can claim a just cause to fight back, especially using force is terrorism. Following the murders in the 9/11 attack. Though this attacks do not appear to be the national effort of Afghanistan, the terrorists who launched on the U.S use Afghanistan as a safe haven. If the Afghanistan government were unwilling to manage the terrorists and hand them over, then the invasion by the U.S into Afghan would be like a police raid into the home of one who is harboring a criminal. If that is not the case but rather the Afghanistan government was unable to thwart the terrorist or handover the terrorists then the U.S invasion would seem like a police raid meant to make safe a neighborhood victimized by criminals. In another case of justification, what if the terrorist are retaliating to an unjust cause to the U.S, this is not approved since you cannot attain justice by violating it. (Zupan, 2004) When carrying out justice, one has to ensure it’s for the right intention. It is unacceptable for the U.S to use the just cause claim to take out Al Qaida as a war of self-defense to hide another intention such as abolition of opium trade. As the soldiers go out to take out Al Qaida terrorist as the targets of their safety and that of the nation they should stick to the legal rights and incase the terrorists surrender they should accept and follow the proper rules that govern surrendering . In carrying out just war the communities and nations should abide by the proper authority principle. Only viable political communities through their leaders can legally declare and prosecute war. From social contract theory, everyone is give the mandate to enforce the law of nature, however, once the community is formed the power of enforcement falls on the political body and representatives who have been selected to carry out law enforcement. Ordinary citizens are not allowed to perform law enforcement activities except...
References: Max Boot (June, 2012) Council on Foreign Relations Press
LTC Daniel S. Zupan (2004) Just War Theory, Law Enforcement and Terrorism: A Reflective Equilibrium
Nasrine Gross (2000) Problems of the evolution of Our Afghan National Identity
Zoellick B.Robert(2011) Afghanistan Biggest need :A Flourishing Economy
Editorial, News International (Rawalpindi), (September 5, 2011) http://www.thenews.com.pk/TodaysPrintDetail.aspx?ID=66065&Cat=8&dt=
Mahmood Shah(February,2013) Dawn.com : Afghanistan beyond 2014
Michael Walzer (1977) Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations, 3rd ed
Tarun Khanna(June 26, 2013) A Roadmap for Afghanistan’s Economic Future
Editorial :How to improve Afghanistan Economy retrieved from http:// m.editorials.voa.gov/a/1482769.html
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