Postpartum Hemorrhage

Topics: Obstetrics, Childbirth, Blood Pages: 19 (6764 words) Published: May 30, 2013
Postpartum Hemorrhage 
 
* Overview
* Workup
* Treatment
Updated: Dec 20, 2012
 
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Background
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Problem
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Epidemiology
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Etiology
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Prevention
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Pathophysiology
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Presentation
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Contraindications
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References
Background
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality. All women who carry a pregnancy beyond 20 weeks’ gestation are at risk for PPH and its sequelae. Although maternal mortality rates have declined greatly in the developed world, PPH remains a leading cause of maternal mortality elsewhere. Postpartum hemorrhage. Maternal morbidity by subregion, 1995. The direct pregnancy-related maternal mortality rate in the United States is approximately 7-10 women per 100,000 live births. National statistics suggest that approximately 8% of these deaths are caused by PPH.[1] In industrialized countries, PPH usually ranks in the top 3 causes of maternal mortality, along with embolism and hypertension. In the developing world, several countries have maternal mortality rates in excess of 1000 women per 100,000 live births, and World Health Organization statistics suggest that 25% of maternal deaths are due to PPH, accounting for more than 100,000 maternal deaths per year.[2] The most recent Practice Bulletin from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists places the estimate at 140,000 maternal deaths per year or 1 woman every 4 minutes.[3] The rate of PPH increased from 1.5% in 1999 to 4.1% in 2009, and the rate of atonic PPH rose from 1% in 1999 to 3.4% in 2009. The risk of total PPH with a morbidly adherent placenta was markedly higher.[4] Problem

The definition of PPH is somewhat arbitrary and problematic. PPH is defined as blood loss of more than 500 mL following vaginal delivery or more than 1000 mL following cesarean delivery.[5] A loss of these amounts within 24 hours of delivery is termed early or primary PPH, whereas such losses are termed late or secondary PPH if they occur 24 hours after delivery. This article focuses on early PPH. Estimates of blood loss at delivery are subjective and generally inaccurate. Studies have suggested that caregivers consistently underestimate actual blood loss. Another proposal suggests using a 10% fall in hematocrit value to define PPH, but this change is dependent on the timing of the test and the amount of fluid resuscitation given.[6] More importantly, the diagnosis would be retrospective, perhaps useful for research but not so in the clinical setting. Another consideration is the differing capacities of individual patients to cope with blood loss. A healthy woman has a 30-50% increase in blood volume in a normal singleton pregnancy and is much more tolerant of blood loss than a woman who has preexisting anemia, an underlying cardiac condition, or a volume-contracted condition secondary to dehydration or preeclampsia. For these reasons, various authors have suggested that PPH should be diagnosed with any amount of blood loss that threatens the hemodynamic stability of the woman. The diagnosis of PPH is usually reserved for pregnancies that have progressed beyond 20 weeks’ gestation. Deliveries at less than 20 weeks’ gestational age are spontaneous abortions. Bleeding related to spontaneous abortion may have etiologies and management in common with those for PPH. Epidemiology

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Frequency
United States and industrialized countries
The frequency of PPH is...

References: 1. Berg CJ, Atrash HK, Koonin LM, Tucker M. Pregnancy-related mortality in the United States, 1987-1990.Obstet Gynecol. Aug 1996;88(2):161-7. [Medline].
7. Rogers J, Wood J, McCandlish R, Ayers S, Truesdale A, Elbourne D. Active versus expectant management of third stage of labour: the Hinchingbrooke randomised controlled trial. Lancet. Mar 7 1998;351(9104):693-9. [Medline].
8. Prendiville WJ, Elbourne D, McDonald S. Active versus expectant management in the third stage of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;CD000007. [Medline].
12. Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Canada. Postpartum hemorrhage. In: ALARM Manual. 15th Ed. 2008.
13. Rogers MS, Yuen PM, Wong S. Avoiding manual removal of placenta: evaluation of intra-umbilical injection of uterotonics using the Pipingas technique for management of adherent placenta. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86(1):48-54. [Medline].
17. McDonald S, Abbott JM, Higgins SP. Prophylactic ergometrine-oxytocin versus oxytocin for the third stage of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD000201.
18. Elbourne DR, Prendiville WJ, Carroli G, Wood J, McDonald S. Prophylactic use of oxytocin in the third stage of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;CD001808. [Medline].
20. Oladapo OT, Fawole B, Blum J, Abalos E. Advance distribution of misoprostol for preventing and treating excessive blood loss after birth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. February 15, 2012.
23. Schuurmans N, MacKinnon K, Lane C, Etches D. Prevention and management of postpartum haemorrhage. J Soc Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2000;22 (4):271-81.
26. Xiong X, Buekens P, Alexander S, Demianczuk N, Wollast E. Anemia during pregnancy and birth outcome: a meta-analysis. Am J Perinatol. 2000;17(3):137-46. [Medline].
42. Gulmezoglu AM, Forna F, Villar J, Hofmeyr GJ. Prostaglandins for preventing postpartum haemorrhage.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007/07;18;(3):CD000494.
45. Criscuolo JL, Kibler MP, Micholet S, et al. [The value of antibiotic prophylaxis during intrauterine procedures during vaginal delivery. A comparative study of 500 patients]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 1990;19(7):909-18. [Medline].
75. Smaill F, Hofmeyr GJ. Antibiotic prophylaxis for cesarean section. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;CD000933. [Medline].
80. Prendiville WJ, Harding JE, Elbourne DR, Stirrat GM. The Bristol third stage trial: active versus physiological management of third stage of labour. BMJ. Nov 19 1988;297(6659):1295-300. [Medline].
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