Uterine Prolapse Study Report
Center for Agro-Ecology and Development, Nepal
1.1 The situation of Nepali Women
Women comprise slightly over 50% of total population of Nepal (CBS, 2001), but the country has one of highest indices of son preference in the world (UNDP, 2004). As a predominantly patriarchal society, institutions such as education, the legal system and even health services are heavily influenced by these norms and values. The consequences of this system can be seen in social indicators such as literacy, child mortality, maternal mortality and morbidity amongst and women.
Generally, women in Nepal have three levels of responsibility. 1) Reproduction and child rearing, 2) Household maintenance and 3) Income earning. Under traditional gender divisions of labour women tend to concentrate more on their reproductive roles and household responsibilities, while men focus on income-earning. Women's jobs are generally not regarded as "work" or considered productive in economic terms, although they contribute considerable time in productive activities. Yet the, often non-formal, work burden of women in Nepal, which averages 16 hours per day, is much higher than the global average (UNDP, 2004). This also has the effect of reducing their access to self-improvement opportunities and paid employment. Even when they do have access to paid employment, women suffer from discriminatory practices in all the sectors women’s mobility is also highly restricted, which is significant as mobility plays important role in increasing self-confidence, self-reliance, skill development and decision making power.
At least the last three Constitutions of Nepal, including the current interim one, have non-discrimination and equality as fundamental rights. The National Penal Code (Muluki Ain, 2022), in its Eleventh Amendment, sets out women’s right to property and a conditional right to abortion, an increase in the minimum age of marriage (from 16 to 18 years) and equality in grounds for divorce. However, these policies have not been fully implemented, particularly at grassroots level. They are overwhelmingly influenced by the strong traditional beliefs and social norms leading to continuing widespread discrimination.
Gender parity in terms of opportunity is poor in Nepal. The Gender Development Index (GDI) is 0.452, against the Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.471. In rural areas it is even lower. The sex ratio, as an indicator of women’s status, has shown some improvement, form 105:100 in 1981 to 99. 8:100 in 2001(UNDP, 2004). However, women remain less empowered than men in economic, political and professional domains. Although directly productive work-force participation rate among women is 46% compared with 69% for men (CBS 1995), women’s share of earned income is about half that of men.
|Table 1: | | | |Status of Women in Nepal |Women |Men | |Literacy |42.5 |65.1 | |Primary School Attainment |45.9 |39.3 | |S.L.C Level |8.1 |9.6 | |Representation in Parliament |5.8 |94.2 | |Representation in Administrative and |12.71 |87.29 | |Managerial Positions | | | |Professional and Technical Position |18.75 |81.25 | |Source: UNDP, 2005 |
Women’s access to and control over resources is also limited. Of the total landholdings, women own only 8% and the average size of their land is just two-thirds that of an overall average holding. Only 4% of households have female ownership of both house and land (UNDP, 2004).
Despite significant gains in female literacy-from a mere 12% in 1981, to 43% in 2001 – women still lag for behind men in literacy and educational attainment. The difference between the male and female literacy rates between 1981 and 2001 remains...
References: Acharya, M, 1997. Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women, UNFPA, Nepal.
ADB, 1999. Women in Nepal, Country Gender Assessments. Asian Development Bank.
Anderson, M L, 1988, Women Health and Reproduction, Thinking About Women: Sociological Perspective on Sex and Gender, USA
Bhasin, K, 2003, Understanding Gender, Women Unlimited, India
Bhasin, K, Khan, NS, 2004, Feminism and Its Relevance in South Asia, Gender Basics, Women Unlimited, India
Bhasin, K, 2005, Purush, Purushatwa ra Purush-wad: Kehi Prashna ra Bisleshan, Shtri Shakti, Kathmandu
Bhasin, K, 2004, Patriarchy, Shtri Shakti, Kathmandu
Bonetti, T R
CAED, 2003. Sudur Paschimko Rupantaran: Kehi Abhyas ra Anubhutiharu (Nepali text translated as Transformation of the Far western Nepal: Experience from Practice). CAED, Kathmandu.
CAED, 2006. WRRP Activity Report # 2 & 3. Women Reproductive Rights Program (WRRP), Progress Reports, Sustainable Livelihood Program (SLP) Centre for Agro-ecology and Development (CAED), Kathmandu.
CBS. 2002. Population Census 2001. National Report. Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Nepal.
Deuba, A.R, Rana, P.S., 2005, A study on Linkages Between Domestic Violence and Pregnancy, SAMANAT-Institute for Social and Gender Equality, Kathmandu
Deuba, A R and P S Rana
Gurung, Rajendra. 2006. Uterine Prolapse: A Hidden Tragedy for Women in Nepal. A Presentation in the Seminar organized by UNFPA on July 2006.
Hockey, J, 1997, Women and Health, Edited by Robinson, V and Richardson, D, Women 's Studies, London.
IOM. 2006. Status of Reproductive Morbidities in Nepal. Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University. (A commissioned study by UNFPA).
ISRSC. 2004. District Development Profile of Nepal. Informal Sector Research and Study Centre, Kathmandu.
MoH. 1996. National Reproductive Health Strategy. Ministry of Health, Government of Nepal.
Prolapse: A Qualitative Study from Tamilnadu, India. www.rhmjournal.org.uk/PDFs/sundari.pdf
Rajbhandari, RR, 2004, Mahila Swasthya, Ke, Kina ra Kasari, Kathmandu
Rajbhandari, B, 2004, Sayapatri, WOREC, Kathmandu
Sama, 2001, Advancing Rights to Health: The Indian Context, Sama, India.
Subba, B and D Adhikari and T Bhattarai. 2003. The Neglected Case of the Fallen Womb. Himal South Asian, April, 2003, Kathmandu.
Gurung, R. 2006. Uterine Prolapse: a hidden tragedy for women in Nepal. A presentation made on the same theme on 10 July 2006 organized by UNFPA, Kathmandu.
Tamang, S. 2004. Nepalma Bikase Naribad, Nepalko Sandharvama Samaj Shastriya Chintan. Social Science Baha. Himal Association.
National Planning Commission. 2003. Tenth Five Year Plan (2059-2064): National Planning Commission, Kathmandu.
Upreti, A. Uterus Prolapse Problem and Solutions, 2006. Family Planning Association of Nepal, Kathmandu.
Watson, R. 1975. Some Observations on Uterine Prolapse in Western Nepal. A journal of Nepal Medical Association. Kathmandu (referred in Bonetti, 2002).
Papers Presented at Conferences
Rajbhandari R, 2006, Prolapsed Uterus: an indicator of Human Rights situation of Nepali women.
Shakya T, 2006, Uterus Prolapse Leading to Gender Based Violence, RHIYA/PHECT-Nepal,
Gurung, R, 2006, Uterine Prolapse - A Hidden Tragedy for Women in Nepal, UNFPA
Dangal, G, 2006, Overview of Genital Prolapse and Experiences of Managing Genital Prolapse Surgically in remote places of Nepal. KMH-PHECT-Nepal
Newspapers and Magazines
Janghamagar, B, 2007, Kantipur Daily (13 Falgun, 2063), Kathmandu
Pant, DR, 2006, Kantipur Daily, Kathmandu
Joshi, R, 2006, Himal Magazine, (1-15 Mangsir, 2063), Kathmandu
Laukal, T, 2006, Nari Magazine, Kathmandu
Paradarshi National Daily, 2006, Chitwan (15 Bhadra, 2063)
Bhattarai, T, 2003, Dheukho ko Pida, Kantipur Daily (1 Chaitra, 2059), Kathmandu
Jhankri, 2003, RK, Bhusal TL, Rajdhani Daily (8 Chaitra, 2059)
Chitrakar, J, 2003, Dheuki: Narika Pakchhama Maun Chitkar, Kantipur Daily (24 Falgun, 2059)
Thapa, D, 2004, Nepal Samachar Patra, Kathmandu
Sharma, B, 2004, Rajdhani Daily, (21 Asar, 2060), Kathmandu
Poudel, A, 2004, Rajdhani Daily, (21 Asar, 2060), Kathmandu
Annapurna Post Daily, 2003, (1 Shrawan 2060), Kathmandu
Gorkhapatra Daily, 2003 (19 Asar, 2060), Kathmandu
Please join StudyMode to read the full document