What have you learned?
1. What makes the study of human development a science?
It seeks to understand how and why people, all kinds of people, everywhere, of every age, change overtime. 3. Why have recommendations regarding the sleeping circumstances of infants changed? Every year until the mid-1990, thousands of 2 to 4 month olds died of SIDS. Susan Beal hypothesized that sleeping position might matter, as a result, SIDS rate dramatically decreased. 5. What are examples of a critical period and a sensitive period? Critical period- Genes program the human fetus to develop arms, legs, hands and feet, fingers and toes, over a period of time. Sensitive period- One example is language. It is best learned early in life. 7. Why do developmentalists insist that differences among people not be assumed to be deficits? By studying all kinds of people, of every age, and background, they have come to appreciate the diversity of mankind, instead of assuming that someone unusual is to be pitied on or changed. 9. Does the multidirectional concept support continuity or discontinuity? Why? The multidirectional concept supports both continuity and discontinuity. Sometimes discontinuity is evident where a rapid shift occurs. Ex: Puberty. Other times, continuity is found. Some things do not change. 11. What are the differences among Bronfenbrenner’s five systems of development? Multidirectional- Both continuity and discontinuity are evident. Multicontextual - Historical context- events or innovations- shape people of each cohort, and socioeconomic status affects development. Multicultural- Recognizes that culture promotes customs, values, and perceptions that guide human life. Multidisciplinary- Uses methods and questions from each field. Plastic- Individuals can be molded as time goes on by their circumstances, efforts, and unexpected events. 13. What impact does SES have? Explain for one particular stage: include three domains. SES brings advantages and disadvantages, opportunities and limitations. During infancy, poverty man mean inferior medical care and malnutrition, stunting the human brain: in adulthood, job and marriage prospects are reduced as SES falls; in late adulthood, the accumulation of past stress can overwhelm the body’s reserves, causing disease and health. 15. Why do these domains overlap?
These domains overlap and thus have a complementary effect on each other. 17. What is the evidence that development is plastic?
Human traits can be molded. An example is David from the opening of the chapter. Plasticity does not mean that anything is possible, just that change may occur- for better or worse. 19. What the advantages and disadvantages are of cross sectional research? The advantages are that it is the quickest and least expensive research. Disadvantages are in that it doesn't provide a good basis for establishing causality. Two distinct variables are measured at the same point in time. Cross-sectional studies can say that the two are related somehow, but they cannot positively determine if one caused the other. 21. Why do experiments need a control group?
They need a control group to find out whether an independent variable affects the dependent variable. 23. Why does correlation not prove causation?
A correlation is positive if both variables tend to increase or decrease together. It indicates that only two variables are related, not that one variable causes the other to occur. 25. Why do most colleges have an Institutional Review Board? To ensure that research follows established guidelines and remains ethical. 26. Why are some questions about human development not yet answered with scientific research? Some questions about human development are left unanswered because some researchers avoid them, fearing unwelcomed and unformed publicity. Some questions or topics could be controversial. Chapter 2
1. How can a theory be practical?...
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